Saturday, March 14, 2020
Psychological Perspective Introduction Autism is a devastating developmental disorder that can be diagnosed in any child regardless of social class, race, cultural or ethnic background. Its effects on personal development and relationship can be massive and may lead to stress among caretakers.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Psychological Perspective-movie review specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, personal life development is a complex interlink of personality, cognitive and sociological development that are molded by voluntary and involuntary environmental factors as this paper analyses from the movie The Black Baloon. An individualÃ¢â¬â¢s development is a reflection of aspirations, successes and failures that a person and the community appreciate. This paper evaluates the character of Maggie and the aspects of stress, preeclampsia, having an autistic child and her life stage using the cognitive, personality and sociological models . Finally, the paper concludes by highlighting the importance of cognitive factors and emphasizes on mental health as well as moderating factors that anchor the ability of an individual to regain strong conscious of life even when under stress. Brief background of the movie The 2008 film The Black Balloon was directed by Elisa Down (Down Jack 2008). It clearly depicts challenges faced by families living with autistic children. The main question that the film raises is whether parents and other members of a family have the ability to cope with such challenges and come out victoriou in the end by being unified with love in spite of the kind of the adversity they face. As the title suggests, Charlie is like a black balloon whose opaqueness hinders one from seeing inner contents.Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Besides, the presence of an autistic child in the family strains M aggie emotionally as depicted in the film bearing in mind that he has to devote all her attention to him. The Black Balloon theme has been used to explore this sensitive issue and reveals how each of the family members has his/her own strategy to deal with the challenges caused by autism. The generalization of literature on the issue Although EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory has been largely employed in the study as the main supporting framework, it has other varying elements of related theories such as the Freuds theory of personality development. Indeed, as Altiere and Von Kluge (2009. p. 142) point out, Ericksons work was greatly influenced by the works of Sigmund Freud. This is evident especially in the first three stages of development whereby the symptoms and traits assimilated by an individual have great similarities in both theories. According to SigmundÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, personality is considered to be like an iceberg since it exists below the human capacity to address the resultant problems. In other words, personality is an integral element when assessing growth and development of an individual. Most of the personality processes are below the conscious awareness of any human being to control. This is the same way an iceberg exists in an ordinary condition. However, Erickson strongly differs with Sigmund who observes that personality development only takes place during the first five years of an infant. In contrast, the development of any individual is continuous and lasts throughout his lifetime as depicted by the Ericksons eight stages of development (Baker, Seltzer Greenberg 2011, p. 601).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Psychological Perspective-movie review specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The aforementioned stages are known to mould the full character trait of a person during the entire phase of growth and development. If the latter theory is anything to goby, then it implies that huma n personality is one of the mot complex aspects to alter in a human being. Psychosocial developmental aspects using EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s stages of development According to Barkway (2009, p. 43), EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s eight stages of development denote a holistic socialization process through which an individual undergoes in order to effectively fit in the society. Unlike Sigmund Freud who believed that the development only takes place for a short period of time up to the age of five years, Erickson believed that development is a continuous process that occurs in an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s lifetime. Erickson pointed out that all stages of human existence are unique and present an individual with particularistic challenges that determine their overall ability to address them (Greenberg, Seltzer Hong 2001, p.229). Notably, the EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s eight stages of life development depict eight crises which are demonstrated by the traumas visible in many individuals with stress, preeclampsia as well as those going though a similar case to that of Maggie. Louds et al (2007, p. 401) argue that the entire psychosocial crisis must be dealt with effectively at every stage in order to develop the correct system of addressing the needs of later stages. Orsmond, Krauss and Seltzer (2004, p.245) also believe that when the crises are not totally or effectively resolved, they directly culminate into the symptoms of stress and other disorders at different life stages.Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Seltzer et al (2001, p. 267), all the eight stages are anchored on the close interaction of three main facets of life development which usually occur in different stages. To begin with, the somatic system is an important component that tends to control biological system whereby various processes constantly take place thereby exerting variant pressures to an individual. At different stages, human body development presents variant developmental demands to effectively assume the required growth in an individual. In addition, the ego which forms the central reasoning and thinking demand of an individual is a major determinant of how an individual approaches the different problems that face them. Indeed, as Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABC, 2009) explains that the ego forms one of the most important aspects of human development in the sense that it is possible to evaluate the costs and benefits of the different actions taken to ensure that only the best solutions are con sidered. Finally, the societal facet views such an individual as part of the extended community which requires every person to live and operate within a given framework that is acceptable by all. Though this has been cited to be much flexible especially in the modern communities where the boundaries have been extended especially for the social institutions; the administrative authorities that ruthlessly deal with the extreme cases of misbehavior posses major challenges to human beings at different stages. MaggieÃ¢â¬â¢s case in terms of personal development Middle adulthood stage (generativity versus stagnation) The seventh stage which occurs between the ages of 40 to 65 years provides an individual with the ability to have an extended view and therefore offer care to others as Erickson indicated in his developmental theory. Successful completion of the earlier stages culminates into the adults demanding the children as they equally need them mostly on the basis of leaving a decent legacy. Adults seek new identities whereby thoughts of death are overshadowed by their efforts to generate greater levels of goodwill in society (Seltzer et al 2004, p. 245). However, if this crisis is not addressed, people will mostly be self centered and therefore experience a strong sense of stagnation. MaggieÃ¢â¬â¢s stage of development in the move is at the middle adulthood. It is important to highlight that the idea behind producing The Black Balloon movie was to contextualize the impact of autistic children towards family health. Shattuck (2007, p. 1735) perspectives concurs with the feelings brought out in the movie that the burdensome demands of taking care of an autistic child cause considerable stress to a family. Since the prognosis of the same is poor, it might cause a lifetime effect such as stress. The movie brings out the character Maggie as a married woman in her forties and who has the burden of raising two sons. At this time, she is also pregnant with her third baby. She is also depicted as a hardworking lady whose energy and time is devoted to the rearing of children and management of her household. However, the fact that she has to care for an autistic child besides juggling with the difficulties of her career and other famly members exerts a lot of pressure and stress on her. According EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of human development, Maggie appears to be in her middle adulthood stage best explained by generativity versus stagnation. Smith and OÃ¢â¬â¢Relly (2008, p. 100) are quite categorical that members in this phase devote their energy to caring for children and making a career thus contributing to the development of the next generation. The interpretation of MaggieÃ¢â¬â¢s personal development phase can be observed as generative in the sense that she strives to raise her children and manage her household. Besides, the fact that Maggie is a housewife has an effect of stagnation. The consequence of this is that it impacts on certain a spects of her self-realization. It is imperative to highlight that the role of taking care of an autistic child is cumbersome. White, Keonig and Scahill (2007, p. 1858) relate it to Ã¢â¬Ëfull-time employmentÃ¢â¬â¢. Maggie appears to be in some form of forced full time employment. From the film, it is also evident that MaggieÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom is limited since she is the only one who seems to get it right with Charlie. This situation compels her to ignore her health risk and the pregnancy condition that requires her to take complete rest because any minute she leaves Charlie with Thomas or Simon chaos always arise. While this is new because even with normal children mothers are always under mental and physical stress while taking care of their children and they always put their needs after those of family members (Cohen, Brown Smailes 2001, p. 981), it appears to be an issue of concern that drives her to committee meetings even when she suffers from the symptoms of preeclampsia. Various researches have indicated that lack of self efficiency skills in an autistic child can attract debilitating impact on the family bond and social relationships. As noted in the movie, the realization that Charlie may not be able to perform certain functions or even marry is some of the failures which can impact negatively on the psychological health of the parents and siblings. Most mothers as in the case of Maggie have been found to suffer from stressful symptoms (Down Jack 2008). Similarly, they might develop love and care towards the disordered individual owing to the fact that most of the attention is directed towards this child (Glantz 2009, p. 1365). For instance, in the initial stages Thomas is unable to understand why Maggie is always very attentive to CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s needs or why he is never punished for wrong doing like when he smashes the birthday cake on the wall. ThomasÃ¢â¬â¢ resentment reaches at a point of no return when Charlie ruins the birthday party in presence of his girlfriend whereby he revenges by breaking CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s video game. CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s case and its impacts Elementary and middle school years (Industry versus inferiority) This stage lasts between the ages of 6-12 years when the child gets to school and therefore is exposed to the wider community apart from the ordinary and familiar caregivers and parents. Therefore, by being exposed to new environment that consist of more friends and different people, the child has a chance of learning and gaining more skills while being transformed to a world of peers. CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s condition is a major setback to his effective completion of the stage. Failure to effectively complete stage one to three aggravates strong sense of inferiority complex which may be very hard to address at the later stages. According to Ayoub (2006, p. 679), a disorder is one of the major factors that keeps individuals from fully being industrious. Consequent guidance should be provided to enhance better decision making at this stage. Maggie is keen to take this line of action. Adolescent stage (identity versus role confusion) According to EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of development, identity crisis is the single most significant aspect that individuals must face in course of their life development. At this stage, the healthy resolution of the previous stages conflicts to generate the necessary sense of trust, competence, control, and independence which must all be incorporated. Success in the earlier stages therefore brings out a strong sense of identity and therefore readiness to plan for the future. However, prior failure will lead to further confusion where the adolescent will be faced with difficulties in making the correct decisions and choices (Sparks 2000, p. 307). In particular, they are faced with vocation problems and sexual orientation. Like in stage four, the adolescent easily becomes a subject of bad peer pressure that lead them conflicts with the community, the au thority, and eventual cumulative stresses (Jara et al 2010, p. 270). On the same note, as autistic children enter adolescent stage, new challenges arise as parents are in a dilemma on whether to send their children to mainstream or special schools (Ginette Debra 2008, p. 55). According to Capps (2009, p. 507), unlike the normal children who learn how to be self reliant, autistic children do not achieve this milestone due to cognitive underdevelopment, hence; they continue to place both physical and emotional demands on their parents. Confusion presented by Autistic patients has been known to have great similarities with identity crisis posted in various stages of the Ericksons eight stages of development. In stage five of Ericssons eight stages of personality development as Raijmakers et al (2005, p. 711) explains, confusion is evident with the individuals lacking a sense of inner consideration of agency. It is clear that indeed, this sense of identity loss is directly correlated t o poor earlier stages crisis resolution. Identity is the ability of any individual to be able to address the correct industrial developmental avenue, generate the necessary intimacy, and fit within the holistic society configuration where its demands are effectively met without conflicting interest. However, lack of the necessary cohesion and relationship with the others and environment puts an individual in a state of hegemony with their demands thereby displacing them into a state of confusion (Poston 2006, p. 1145). In some instances as Kashanian et al (2011, p. 412) point out, there arises a sense of negative identity where an individual tries to generate or fit his traits within the groups that accept him/her. However, the negative identities make the individual to be looked down upon by the community as they directly negate its culture. To add to that, identity confusion has also been indicated by lack of consistency in values posted by an individual, values that are un-harmon ic with the societal demands, and lack of the necessary societal ideals. Coping strategies Resilience theory explains how families with special emphasis on parents can adequately cope with children who have been diagnosed with disorder issues and cases that cause stress.. Dekker and Sibai (2001, p. 209) indicate that developing coping strategies is crucial in determining whether an individual will recover from stress-producing situation without disintegration. This concept in very interesting because it sheds light on why some families are able to cope well with stress than others. The film under analysis portray this concept very clearly since despite the chronic and consist stress that Charlie brings, Maggie is able to cope with the situation through flexibility. Research has shown that the behavior of autistic children is always unpredictable; therefore, family members must exercise flexibility to be able to deal with uncertain behavior. Besides, Maggie has also adopted a constru ctive approach to resilience. The theory states that an individual is capable of remaining healthy if he/she can positively cope with the environmental aspects that instigate stress by remaining optimistic amidst stress causing factors. Furthermore, family resilience theory seeks to identity the elements that promote high level of resilience and this elements are treated as ideal of which other families can emulate incase they are faced with a similar situation. Implications for healthcare practice Addressing psychological disorders in society is one of the most critical aspects that contribute to the holistic well being of the people. Notably, the current rising levels of psychological disorders have culminated into intensification of research for the best methods of addressing them. Some of the methods of handling the problem include behavioral and cognitive therapies Behavioral and cognitive therapies share vast considerations in common. Though behavioral therapy does not focus m ore on the internal consideration of an individual, it appreciates that an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological behavior is vastly influenced by his internal state. This is similar to the cognitive therapy which is based on the view that it is the internal state of an individual that dictates their behavior and therefore should be manipulated to address psychological disorders. Beside, the concept of environmental influence is employed in both therapies. While it is the main basis for behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy employs it to identify those suffering psychological disorders or trace their progress after treatment. According to Roberts and Cooper (2001, p. 53), both behavioral and cognitive therapies are different through the mode they approach problems related to psychological disorders. In cognitive therapy, an individual is helped to overcome psychological disorders through identification and establishing change to the thinking, emotional response, and even behavioral patte rns. Notably, cognitive therapy seeks to address psychological disorder from internal consideration of an individual. For instance, clients may be assisted to deal with their beliefs or even their negative ways of thinking through their cooperation with the therapist. The debate on which method between behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy is better has remained a real challenge to resolve for a considerably long period of time now. Nejatizadeh et al (2008, p. 451) indicate that depending on thoroughness and the type of psychological disorder being considered, both methodologies have effectively been employed. As a result, a combination of the two methods have been established and indeed been found to operate in a superior mode compared to either cognitive therapy or behavioral therapy when employed singly. As Nejatizadeh et al indicate, cognitive-behavioral therapy is id being preferred by psychotherapists in addressing conditions such as stress, depression, identity disorders a nd even schizophrenia among others. Conclusion To sum it up, it is worth to mention that personal growth and development from childhood is a complex process that demands close monitoring especially in cases where physical or mental infirmities are noted. This paper concludes by indicating that addressing psychological disorders in society is very critical if people are to remain harmonious, stress-free and highly productive. Notably, both cognitive and behavioral therapies have been practiced with great levels of efficacy as part and parcel of reducing stress. However, their combination appears even better in term of addressing psychological disorders. References Altiere, M Von Kluge, S 2009, Ã¢â¬ËSearching for acceptance: Challenges encountered while raising a child with autismÃ¢â¬â¢. Journal of Intellectual Developmental Disability, Vol. 34 no. 2, pp. 142-152. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABC), 2009, Autism in Australia. Web. Ayoub CC et al. 2006, Cognitive and emotional differences in young maltreated children: A translational application of dynamic skill theory, Development and psychopathology, vol. 18 no. 3, pp. 679-706. Baker J, Seltzer M Greenberg S 2011, Ã¢â¬ËLongitudinal effects of adaptability on behavior problems and maternal depression in families of adolescents with autismÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Family Psychology, vol. 25 no. 4, pp. 601-609. Barkway, P 2009, Ã¢â¬ËPsychology for Health ProfessionalsÃ¢â¬â¢, Sydney: Elsevier Australia. Capps, D 2009, Norman Vincent Peale, Smiley Blanton and the Hidden Energies of the Mind, Journal of Religion and Health, vol. 48 no. 4, pp. 507-527. Cohen P, Brown J Smailes E 2001, Child abuse and neglect and the development of mental disorders in the general population, Development and psychopathology, vol. 13 no. 4, pp. 981-99. Dekker, G Sibai, B 2001, Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of pre-eclampsia, The Lancet, vol. 357, no. 9251, pp. 209-215. Down, E. Jack, J. 2008. The Black Balloon. Web. Ginette, GF Debra, AE 2008, Development of an educational/support group for pregnant women in prison, Journal of Forensic Nursing, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 55-60. Glantz MD, et al. 2009, Mental disorders as risk factors for later substance dependence: estimates of optimal prevention and treatment benefits, Psychological medicine, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 1365-1377. Greenberg S, Seltzer M Hong J 2001, Ã¢â¬ËBidirectional effects of expressed emotion and behavior problems and symptoms in adolescents and adults with autismÃ¢â¬â¢, American journal on mental retardation, vol. 111, no 4, pp. 229-249. Jara DL et al. 2010, Pre-operative quality of life and psychological factors that influence patient decision making in LASIK, Eye, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 270-5. Kashanian M et al. R 2011, Risk Factors for Pre-Eclampsia: A Study in Tehran, Iran, Archives of Iranian Medicine, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 412-415. Louds J et al. 2007 Ã¢â¬ËTransition and change in adolescents and young adults with autism; longitudinal effects on maternal well-beingÃ¢â¬â¢, American journal on mental retardation, vol. 112, no. 6, pp. 401-417. Nejatizadeh A, et al. 2008, The genetic aspects of pre-eclampsia: achievements and limitations, Biochemical genetics, vol. 46, no. 7-8, pp. 451-479. Orsmond, G, Krauss, M Seltzer, M, 2004 Ã¢â¬ËPeer relationships and social and recreational activities among adolescents and adults with autismÃ¢â¬â¢ Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 245-256. Poston L et al. 2006, Vitamin C and vitamin E in pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia (VIP trial): randomised placebo-controlled trial, The Lancet, vol. 367, no. 9517, pp. 1145-1154. Raijmakers MTM et al. 2005, Amino Thiols, Detoxification and Oxidative Stress in Pre-Eclampsia and Other Disorders of Pregnancy, Current pharmaceutical design, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 711-734. Roberts, JM Cooper, DW 2001, Pathogenesis and genetics of pre-eclampsia, The Lancet, vol. 357, no. 9249, pp. 53-56. Sel tzer M, Krauss W, Orsmond I Vestal K 2001,Ã¢â¬â¢Families of adolescents and adults with autism: Uncharted TerritoryÃ¢â¬â¢ International review of research in mental retardation, vol.23, pp. 267-293. Seltzer, M, Krauss, W, Orsmond, I Vestal, C 2004, Ã¢â¬ËPeer relationships and social and recreational activities among adolescents and adults with autismÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(3), 245-256. Shattuck, P 2007, Ã¢â¬ËChange in autism symptoms and maladaptive behaviors in adolescents and adults with an autism spectrum disorderÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, vol. 37, pp.1735Ã¢â¬â1747. Smith, S OÃ¢â¬â¢Relly, R 2008, Ã¢â¬ËAustralian autism handbook: the essential resource guide to autism spectrum disorder. Jane Curry Publishing, Edgecliff: N.S.W. Sparks, JA 2000, The deconstruction of magic: Rereading, rethinking Erickson, Family process, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 307-311. White, W, Keonig, K Scahill, L 2007, Ã¢â¬ËSocial skills development in children with autism spectrum disorders: a review of the intervention researchÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 37, no. 20, pp. 1858-1868.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Death Epitomizes American Dream, Society and Time (The Great Gatsby) - Essay Example This paper will discuss the significance of GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s death based on the three points: death of American dream, death defines the decayed or rotten society, and death conveys the limitation of time. Hard work, success, and prosperity symbolize the American dreams, which are grounded on their aim for life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Gatz is presented as a man filled with spirit: aspiration, commitment, braveness, and faith. This is evident in his longing for Daisy when Gatsby stated that he seemed closer to Daisy similar with the distance of the star to the moon. He further exclaims his proximity to his dreams -- the green light on a dock (Fitzgerald). Gatsby once believed that his dream is impossible to achieve because of his distance to Daisy, but he realizes that his hope and faith never vanish. The commitment of Gatsby to Daisy is apparent in the years that have passed. For five years, they were separated, which inspired Gatsby to accumulate wealth that could mak e her proud of. Fitzgerald wants to emphasize the authentic American dream, which is not adulterated by wealth. The only visible value in the life of Gatsby is the American spirit embedded on his heart through representing his love and commitment for Daisy. Nick ascertains in his observation that Gatsby possesses an exceptional quality that is hope in which he will never find in others (Fitzgerald). This represents the death of American dream, which Fitzgerald aims to restore. He sees it as the authentic American dream that has a substance, which is far from what the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s projection that wealth is an answer in order to belong in the upper strata or to buy love and happiness. It is proven by Fitzgerald that wealth accomplishes nothing. Furthermore, Fitzgerald wants to retrieve the lost American dreams through the death of Gatsby. Its ending serves as a warning to Americans that when the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s perspective continues, the AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s vitality or spirit is lost. We must stop deceiving ourselves that green will lead us to a valuable and significant future in order to restore the American spirit. The unhappy ending of The Great Gatsby symbolizes the decayed society. We all know that society comprises of individuals or group of people; hence, the rotten society is represented by the characters of Tom Buchanan and Daisy Buchanan, Myrtle and George Wilson, Jordan Baker, and Jay Gatz. Nick concludes the story represents west because they are Americans that have common flaws that are not compatible with the Eastern life (Fitzgerald). This line indicates the commonality in Westerners, which depicts lies, carelessness, inhuman, self-centered, hypocrite, and pretentious. Jay Gatsby erases his past, and he is driven by his dream to accrue wealth through the easy money or illegal activities. Furthermore, Gatsby deceives people in his family and educational background by telling that he comes from an affluent family in the middle-west and obtain his educa tion in Oxford because of a family tradition (Fitzgerald). Fitzgerald points out the desire of Gatsby to be accepted in the higher strata, so he devises story. Tom and Daisy Buchanan are an epitome of selfish, inhuman, and careless human beings. Fitzgerald identified them as careless people -- they break things and individuals, then easily escape with their money, and allowed other people to resolve their problem. Tom and Daisy symbolize the new American dream, w
Monday, February 10, 2020
M, a 72 year-old widow with neprohritic syndrome - Assignment Example Multiple substances such as, water, urea, creatinine, uremic toxins, and drugs move from the blood into the dialysate, thus facilitating removal from the blood. Solutes are transported across the membrane by either passive diffusion or ultrafiltration. M also received 7 sessions of Plasma Exchange. Plasma Exchange is a procedure in which blood is separated into different parts: red cells, white cell, platelets and plasma. The plasma is removed from the blood and a plasma substitute replaced. M had chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is the treatment which uses anti-cancer drugs to kill cancer (Myeloma) cells. Myeloma is the cancer that affects cells in the bone marrow called plasma cells leading to damage to the kidney. Haemodialysis and Plasma Exchange will correct M's blood chemistry and therefore relieve her present symptoms. M is hypertensive due to fluid overload or as a result of the failure of the kidneys. The Management of M's hypertension will have the highest priority. As Redmond and McClelland (2006) noted prompt recognition and treatment of hypertension are essential because cardiovascular disease including coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, stroke and left ventricular hypertrophy are the most common cause of death in patients with kidney disease. Risk reduction measures to prevent cardiovascular disease may delay the progression of kidney disease (in ARF or is the effect here Reno protective). ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are the drug of choice (Thomas 2004); however deterioration in renal function may follow initiation of treatment with these medications (DOH 2005, BNF 2006). Since hypertension can have deleterious effects on both cardiovascular and kidney functions, the long-term protection provided by ACE inhibitors (or ARBs) out weighs the risk they pose (Th omas 2004) (this is for ERF is it the same for ARF - CHECK). Because acute renal failure is a catabolic state, the patient can become nutritionally deficient. Total caloric intake should be 30 to 45 kcal (126 to 189 kJ) per kg per day, most of which should come from a combination of carbohydrates and lipids. In patients who are not receiving dialysis, protein intake should be restricted to 0.6 g per kg per day. Patients who are receiving dialysis should have a protein intake of 1 to 1.5 g per kg per day (Agrawal 2000). Hyperphosphatemia The patient has hyperphosphatemia. Phosphate is normally excreted by the kidney and phosphate retention and hyperphosphatemia may occur in ARF. Phosphate - binding agents may be used to retain phosphate ion in the gut. The most common agent is calcicihew, although M is on this drug she needs education on when to take the tablets or maybe increase the dosage. Uremia Caloric intake shou
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Organic vs Non Organic Foods Essay ItÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to walk into a grocery store and not notice a certain new kind of trend. There is a growing urge to have more organic items on shelves. The general belief is that organic items tend to be better for the consumer and the environment when compared to non-organic items. Although many people cant tell the difference, there are multiple pros and cons between organic and nonorganic. In terms of consumer health, both organic and processed foods have their benefits. The benefits of processed foods are that scientists can place additives that increase the nutritional value. According to Dr. Mehmet Oz (2010), this helps to Ã¢â¬Å"prevent neural-tube defects and certain childhood cancers, boost brain development and may increase intelligence, and reduce the incidence of rickets. Ã¢â¬ This means that theres nutrients that can be added to aid in helping the country with disease prevention. Organic foods lack the ability to be genetically modified but offer their own benefits as well. According to Maria Rodale (2010), some organically grown foods have Ã¢â¬Å" more conjugated linleic acid, which is a powerful cancer-fighting nutrient. Ã¢â¬ Both these types of food can help consumers healthy and prevent disease. There are some alarming differences between organic and processed foods especially when considering agriculture. Ã¢â¬Å"OrganicÃ¢â¬ means that a food is grown without the aid of pesticides or fertilizers. Organic farmers use manure and nothing else to grow fruits, vegetables, and grains. It says in The Organic Myth that this can lead to some bad cases of E. Coli that wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be present in foods grown with pesticides since there are all sorts of bacteria in the manure (2004). The reverse is that without all those chemicals being sprayed on crops, you tend to have less pollution. Rodale states, Ã¢â¬Å"Growing foods organically prevents thousands of toxic chemicals from entering the environment and poisoning our soil, our wells, our wildlife, our children and ourselvesÃ¢â¬ (2010). Organic goods also tend to cost more leading to them being classified as a luxury item. The downside is that most cattle and genetically altered crops have Ã¢â¬Å"unwanted additives like growth hormone and chemicalsÃ¢â¬ (Oz 2010). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to know whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s worth the money to go organic or just stick with the usual. Foods grown without the aids of pesticides seem to be beneficial to the consumer and the environment, which is a big selling point for those who want to go green. On the other hand they are much more costly than non-organic crops. Many people would rather risk the potentially harmful additives to shave a few bucks of the price. It all depends on preference and beliefs but its definitely easy to see where they offer there own pros and cons. Miller, M. (2004). The Organic Myth. National Review, 56(2), 35-37. Oz, M. (2010). The Organic Alternative. Time, 176(9), 46-46. Rodale, M. (2010). 15 WAYS TO CHANGE THE WORLD (and your life) ONE APPLE AT A TIME. Mens Health (10544836), 25(3), 113-138.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Ada The Ada language is the result of the most extensive and most expensive language design effort ever undertaken. The United States Department of Defense (DoD) was concerned in the 1970Ã ¡Ã ¦s by the number of different programming languages being used for its projects, some of which were proprietary and/or obsolete. Up until 1974, half of the applications at the DoD were embedded systems. An embedded system is one where the computer hardware is embedded in the device it controls. More than 450 programming languages were used to implement different DoD projects, and none of them were standardized. As a result of this, software was rarely reused. For these reasons, the Army, Navy, and Air Force proposed to develop a high-level language for embedded systems (The Ada Programming Language). In 1975 the Higher Order Language Working Group (HOLWG) was formed with the intent of reducing this number by finding or creating a programming language generally suitable for the department's requirements. The working group created a series of language requirements documents - the Strawman, Tinman, and Ironman (and later Steelman) documents. Twenty-three existing languages were formally reviewed, FORTRAN, COBOL, PL/I, HAL/S, TACPOL, CMS-2, CS-4, SPL/I, JOVIAL J3, JOVIAL J73, ALGOL 60, ALGOL 68, CORAL 66, Pascal, SUMULA 67, LIS, LTR, TRL/2, EUCLID, PDL2, PEARL, MORAL, EL/I; but the team concluded in 1977 that no existing language met the specifications, though Pascal, ALGOL 68, or PL/I would be a good starting point (History of the Ada Programming Language). Requests for proposals for a new programming language were issued and four contractors were hired to develop their proposals under the names of Red, Green, Blue, and Yellow. In May of 1979, the Green proposal, designed by Jean Ichbiah at Cii Honeywell Bull, was chosen and given the name Ada, after Lady Ada Lovelace, the so-called first computer programmer. The reference manual was approved on December 10, 1980 (Ada Lovelace's bi rthday). The total number of high-level programming languages in use for embedded systems projects at the DoD fell from over 450 in 1983 to 37 by 1996. The DoD required the use Ada for every software project where new code was more than 30% of result, though exceptions to this rule were often granted. This requirement was effectively removed in 1997. Similar requirements existed in other North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries. Ada :: Computers Language Technology Essays Ada The Ada language is the result of the most extensive and most expensive language design effort ever undertaken. The United States Department of Defense (DoD) was concerned in the 1970Ã ¡Ã ¦s by the number of different programming languages being used for its projects, some of which were proprietary and/or obsolete. Up until 1974, half of the applications at the DoD were embedded systems. An embedded system is one where the computer hardware is embedded in the device it controls. More than 450 programming languages were used to implement different DoD projects, and none of them were standardized. As a result of this, software was rarely reused. For these reasons, the Army, Navy, and Air Force proposed to develop a high-level language for embedded systems (The Ada Programming Language). In 1975 the Higher Order Language Working Group (HOLWG) was formed with the intent of reducing this number by finding or creating a programming language generally suitable for the department's requirements. The working group created a series of language requirements documents - the Strawman, Tinman, and Ironman (and later Steelman) documents. Twenty-three existing languages were formally reviewed, FORTRAN, COBOL, PL/I, HAL/S, TACPOL, CMS-2, CS-4, SPL/I, JOVIAL J3, JOVIAL J73, ALGOL 60, ALGOL 68, CORAL 66, Pascal, SUMULA 67, LIS, LTR, TRL/2, EUCLID, PDL2, PEARL, MORAL, EL/I; but the team concluded in 1977 that no existing language met the specifications, though Pascal, ALGOL 68, or PL/I would be a good starting point (History of the Ada Programming Language). Requests for proposals for a new programming language were issued and four contractors were hired to develop their proposals under the names of Red, Green, Blue, and Yellow. In May of 1979, the Green proposal, designed by Jean Ichbiah at Cii Honeywell Bull, was chosen and given the name Ada, after Lady Ada Lovelace, the so-called first computer programmer. The reference manual was approved on December 10, 1980 (Ada Lovelace's bi rthday). The total number of high-level programming languages in use for embedded systems projects at the DoD fell from over 450 in 1983 to 37 by 1996. The DoD required the use Ada for every software project where new code was more than 30% of result, though exceptions to this rule were often granted. This requirement was effectively removed in 1997. Similar requirements existed in other North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
According to the three days I tracked my diet, I am not as unhealthy as I thought. I eat enough meat, vegetables and grains to meet the daily recommended requirements. I seem to be getting enough protein and my fat intake is appropriate at around 30% of my diet. My cholesterol intake is also about average. I noticed that by day 3, I was eating more fruit, but that may have been to appear healthier after seeing my previous two days diet. I am going to make a point to eat a piece of fruit with or after every meal, and as a snack instead of cookies.I learned from the tracking that I do need to to eat more fruit and find a way to ingest more dairy. I put skim milk in my coffee and have cheese once in awhile but not enough. My sodium was a little high on day 2, mostly because I had two Cokes. I do not normally drink two Cokes in one day, but I need to be more aware of what I am drinking and drink more water. I sometimes forget that beverages count towards my diet, including coffee and Cok e. With school and work, my schedule varies. Some days I am able to eat three healthy meals a day while other days I eat on the run, or sometimes even skip meals.I do not like to eat fast food more than once a week, and I will try to continue with that. I try to exercise a few times a week, but just like meals, sometimes that is not possible. When I do exercise I try to make up for the days I miss and spend extra time on the treadmill. I am pleased that my cholesterol intake is normal and would like to keep that amount in my diet, or possibly lower it. Eating meat helps make me feel full, so I do not think cutting out meat is an option in my diet, but I could decrease my use of butter and other fats.I will start paying more attention to the amount of sodium I take in; luckily I do not eat many pre-packaged foods, so most of my sodium only comes from beverages like soda. It would be hard to give up Coke all together, but maybe I can find another sweet drink that is lower in sodium to have when I eat popcorn. I am going to start carrying a water bottle, so I will be hydrated and perhaps not feel like I need something else to drink. I do know I am not able to cut out coffee while I am in school.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Kind and selfish, deep and shallow, male and female, and foolish and wise arenÃ¢â¬â¢t always words that are associated with each other, quite the opposite in fact. However, when it comes to the trickster tales of Native Americans, each word is associated with the other and describes more or less the same person or animal. To Native American people a trickster affects the world for an infinite number of reasons, including instruction and enjoyment. A trickster, like the name implies, is a cunning deception. A trickster can be a hero. However, at the same time he could introduce death. How is that heroic? Why would a group of people want to remember a person that brings punishments such as death? The function the trickster tales have/ had onÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Although the reasons these stories are taboo are similar the lessons and morals of the stories are quite different. Wakjankaga gives a lesson of foolishness. These tales can basically be broken down into one moral, Ã ¢â¬Å"do as you are toldÃ¢â¬ . The Sioux trickster IktomiÃ¢â¬â¢s story reveals a lesson showing that Ã¢â¬Å"honesty, is the best policy.Ã¢â¬ Iktomi shows the reader the power and influence one person can have on a community and even the world. The morals of the tales have similarities such as truth and justice, which may be the reason these stories are still widely read. The universal concerns within the stories may also pose as a reason they are widely read. Even in the modern world there are concerns such as those addressed by the trickster tales. One concern was addressed in the news earlier this week, sex changes. In the tale of the trickster Wakjankaga, Wakjankaga has a sex change or dresses up as a woman in order to marry the chiefÃ¢â¬â¢s son and survive the rough winter. Technologies and increased surgical knowledge has led to the availability of sex changes in the modern world. Another concern is found within the tale of Cokfi or Rabbit. In the tale Rabbit is hurt and the Ã¢â¬Å"doctorÃ¢â¬ vulture is called. Eventually, the vulture eats Rabbit. This tale is more or less a symbol of malpractice. Vulture lied in order to eat Rabbit, just like Ã¢â¬Å"doctorsÃ¢â¬ lie to make money or even kill others. These concerns follow into books being written and published in the post-modernShow MoreRelatedTrickster Tales Are An Important Part Of Th e Native American Culture1459 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Trickster tales have been an important part of the Native American culture for hundreds of years. Trickster tales are an oral storytelling tradition and are continuously passed down from generation to generation of Native American Indians. American Indians enjoy listening and telling trickster tales because it is a fun and interesting way to tell a story with a valuable lesson. In many tales, the trickster has a name associated with an animal, and a majority of listeners assume they are animals;Read MoreThe Native American Trickster Tales: a Different Kind of Hoax941 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Native American Trickster Tales: A Different Kind of Hoax The differences in each of the Native American Trickster Tales. Trickster Tales may be humorous because of all the chaos the Trickster causes, but the Trickster helps cultures in many ways. These tales entertain as well as teach valuable life lessons to the reader or listener. Trickster Tales are very diverse, and the Trickster character changes, depending on the region the tale comes from. One of the only things all Trickster TalesRead MoreCoyote and Bear1478 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Native American tale of Coyote and Bear, originally translated from oral tradition in nineteen six by G. A. 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It sounds simple enough to consider the role of the trickster in Native American culture, but examinationRead MoreTrickster-God-Creator1433 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTricksters appear in the mythology and folklore of many cultures around the world. Although the power and relative divinity of each Trickster varies from tradition to tradition, Tricksters have important roles in the creation, development, and sometimes destruction, of each culture. The Coyote of Native North American traditions is often depicted as assisting the Ã¢â¬Å"Great MysteryÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Great SpiritÃ¢â¬ in the creating and populating of the world (Leeming). In the Greek myths Hermes is initially a sly infantRead MoreNative American Literature1067 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Native American Literature Storytelling Culture Introduction Native American author Nadine Thader has written a book called The Importance of Storytelling for the Survival of Native American Religion, and in the book Thader describes the way legends and stories were shared from one generation to another, and she insists that the most important function (of storytelling) is to display Native American religion (Thader, 2009, p 21). In fact much the history of Native American tribes has beenRead MoreWhen It Comes To Folktales, Fairytales, Legends, Myths,1733 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmental library. These are tales that I can pull out and tell on a momentÃ¢â¬â¢s notice. My library has stories from all over Europe, including obscure or not well known stories such as Ã¢â¬Å"Brother and SisterÃ¢â¬ (a German tale), Ã¢â¬Å"The White SnakeÃ¢â¬ (a German tale), Ã¢â¬Å"Cap oÃ¢â¬â¢ RushesÃ¢â¬ (an English tale), and Ã¢â¬Å"BluebeardÃ¢â¬ (a French tale) that I can recall and tell to others at the drop of a dime. I know a few from Asia, like Ã¢â ¬Å"Father FrostÃ¢â¬ (a Russian tale) and Ã¢â¬Å"The StonecutterÃ¢â¬ (a Chinese tale). I am even familiar with